1. The Society of Jesus/The Jesuits was a religious order established during the Counter-Reformation by St. Ignatius De Loyola.
2. The aim of the Jesuits was to promote the Catholic Church’s teachings to the people of Europe.
3. The Jesuits founded schools & colleges to educate the sons of the wealthy e.g. Gonzaga College, Dublin.
4. The Jesuits also aimed to spread the Catholic faith in Africa & Asia. The most famous Jesuit missionary was St. Francis Xavier who travelled to places like Japan & Malaysia to spread the Catholic ideas.
5. All of the Jesuits were expected to follow rules without question. Their leader is referred to as the general.
6. The Jesuits operate in 112 nations on 6 different continents.
COUNCIL OF TRENT
1. From 1545-1563, Catholic Cardinals & bishops met at Trentino, Italy to decide on reforms for the Catholic Church.
2. They decided that absenteeism, pluralism, simony & nepotism would be outlawed.
3. They decided that a catechism would be written. This would be a written instruction on the religious beliefs of the church.
4. New clergy would be trained in seminaries.
5. They decided that Mass & other rituals would remain said in Latin.
6. The 7 sacraments would be reinforced.
7. The clergy would remain celibate i.e. not marry
COURTS OF INQUISITION
1. Established to try those accused of heresy i.e. those who had beliefs which differed to those of an established religion.
2. Common in Spain & Italy.
3. Torture was used to force people to confess.
4. If people refused to confess, people would be publicly burnt at the take - known as AUTO-DA-FE
5. Other punishments: Loss of land/property & titles.
6. There were many trials in the Inquisition globally e.g. The Spanish Inquisition had over 100,000 trials.
IMPACT OF FAMINE ON IRISH SOCIETY
1. Before the famine, Ireland's population was over 8 million but by 1901 the population had declined to 4.6 million.
2. Huge change in land inheritance after the famine. Subdivision of land was ended - eldest son inherited the entire farm. Younger sons had little option but to emigrate.
3.The use of the Irish language declined as parents realised that many of their children would probably emigrate to North America, Britain or Australia. Parents encouraged their children to learn English rather than Irish.
4. Many landlords went bankrupt during the Famine years as their tenants were unable to pay their rents.
5. The poorest class in the countryside, the cottiers, were hardest hit by the famine and most of them either died or emigrated after being evicted by their landlords.