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alo12hackett
looking for notes on DNA and genetics

looking for notes on dna and genetics !!!


7 Comments
SyKN
SyKN
some good notes here ( copy paste into browser): https://www.theconicalflask.ie/biology
keanefamily
http://www.thephysicsteacher.ie/leavingcertbiologyhome.html heres another link with some notes!
keanefamily
Heredity Heredity is the passing on of features from parents to offspring by means of genes Also called Genetic Inheritance Genes A gene is a length of DNA that codes for a specific protein It is the unit of inheritance It is found on a chromosome It contains instructions to make a particular protein It directly influences the characteristics of an organism Characteristics are controlled by genes. For example everyone has genes which determine hair colour. But not everyone has the same version of those genes. So there is more than one type of gene for hair colour that you could have. Genes Gene Expression Not all genes are expressed Genes produce characteristics or traits that are inherited Eg: Gene for Tallness Organism is small – Why? Maybe due to poor nutrition Characteristics Characteristics = heredity + environment Chromosomes Chromosomes contain a number of genes Chromosome Structure Chromosomes are made up of 60% protein 40% DNA Genes are arranged along the DNA of the chromosome Non Coding DNA Large sections of the chromosome do not contain genes This DNA is called Non Coding DNA It’s function is not yet clear Chromosome structure Chromosomes Thread like structures Contain DNA Contain Protein Contain Genetic Information Occur in pairs Found in the nucleus of all cells
keanefamily
1 What is DNA Hereditary material Carries and passes on genetic information It is a nucleic acid Made up of nucleotides The DNA Double Helix Two parallel strands Each with a series of bases to the inside The bases are directly opposite each other The bases link each other in pairs These links form the steps of the ladder The DNA Double Helix Parallel Strand Parallel Strand Base Base Hydrogen bond- link The Bases Adenine (A) Thymine (T) Cytosine (C) Guanine (G) The Base Pair Rule The bases can occur in any sequence along a strand of DNA But the sequence must be complimentary to the sequence on the other strand The Base Pair Rule Adenine can only join to Thymine A T Guanine can only join to Cytosine G C http://www.zerobio.com/drag_gr9/DNA/dna.htm Building DNA Building DNA http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/units/basics/builddna/ Non Coding DNA Only about 3% of DNA is composed of genes 97% of DNA is non coding DNA or junk DNA Coding DNA The parts of DNA that contain information to make RNA or protein Coding DNA in genes are called exons Non Coding DNA Do not contain critical information for the production of protein They are now thought to play a role in gene expression Non coding DNA within genes is called introns Learning Check Label a gene and a piece of non coding DNA in the following picture
keanefamily
2 RNA Ribonucleic Acid Operates with DNA to make proteins Has Uracil instead of Thymine Differences between DNA and RNA DNA Double strand Sugar is deoxyribose Has Thymine Very long Self replicating Found only in the nucleus RNA Single strand Sugar is ribose Has Uracil Short molecule Not self replicating Found in nucleus and cytoplasm Similarities between DNA and RNA Both are nucleic acids Both contain adenine, guanine and cytosine nucleotides Operate together to produce specific proteins DNA structure – deoxyribose sugar, sugar, phosphate and 4 named nitrogenous bases 5-carbon sugar is either a ribose or a deoxyribose In eukaryotic cells nucleic acids are either: Deoxyribose nucleic acids (DNA) Ribose nucleic acids (RNA)
keanefamily
sorry that posted weirdly but maybe if u copy and paste it into a google/word doc it will be normal again. I had to split it into 3 sections bc it was too long to post but if it doesnt work there are still some links in it for videos that you could use instead :)
alo12hackett
thanks for this : )
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