Pneumatic systems use the energy stored in compressed air to do work. By controlling the release of the air to pneumatic cylinders, we can turn that energy into movement. Pneumatic components are arranged in circuits - much like electronic circuits - using symbols for each component. You need to be familiar with the operation of two of most common pneumatic components - a single-acting cylinder with a three-port valve, and a double-acting cylinder with a five-port valve. You also need to understand how time-delayed pneumatic circuits and pneumatic logic circuits work. Finally you need to know how to work out the force output from a cylinder.